Biography

Jethro Tull

Members: Ian Anderson, Martin Barre, Doane Perry, Andrew Giddings, Jonathan Noyce

Active: 1968 - present

HISTORY

Jethro Tull are a rock band that is very talented and formed in Blackpool, England in the 1960s. Their music is marked by the quirky vocal style and unique lead flute work of frontman Ian Anderson and by unusual and often complex song construction. Their music, though starting with blues rock with an experimental flavour, has incorporated elements of classical, Celtic folk music, and art rock. Anderson has attributed the marked difference between their music and the music of their contemporaries to the group's avoidance of illegal recreational drugs. While other music groups did influence them in their early years, they quickly developed a unique, instantly recognisable sound.

1963 - 1967 ORIGINS

Ian Anderson's first band, started in 1963 in Blackpool, was known as The Blades. It had developed by 1966 into a seven-piece white soul band called the John Evan Band (later the John Evan Smash), named for pianist/drummer John Evans, who dropped the final "s" from his name to make it sound less ordinary. At this point, Barriemore Barlow was the band's drummer, as he would later be for Tull itself beginning in early 1971. However, after moving to London, most of the band quit, leaving Anderson and bassist Glenn Cornick to join forces with blues guitarist Mick Abrahams and his friend, drummer Clive Bunker, both from the band "McGregor's Engine". At first, they had trouble getting repeat bookings and took to changing their name frequently to continue playing the London club circuit. Band names were often supplied by the staff of their booking agents, one of whom, a history buff, eventually christened them Jethro Tull after the 18th-century agriculturist who invented the seed drill. This name stuck simply by virtue of the fact that they were using it the first time a club manager (namely, John Gee of the Marquee Club, London) liked their show enough to invite them to return.

1968 BLUES PHASE

After an unsuccessful single (an Abrahams-penned pop tune called "Sunshine Day" on which the band's name was misspelled "Jethro Toe", making it a collector's item), they released the bluesy album This Was in 1968. Accompanying music written by Anderson and Abrahams was the traditional arrangement "Cat's Squirrel", which highlighted Abraham's blues-rock style. The Rahsaan Roland Kirk-penned jazz piece "Serenade to a Cuckoo" gave Anderson a showcase for his growing talents on the flute, an instrument which he started learning to play only half a year before the release of the album. Earth/Black Sabbath guitarist Tony Iommi took on guitar duties for a short time, appearing in "The Rolling Stones Rock and Roll Circus" (in which the group mimed "A Song For Jeffrey") in 1968, but returned to Earth/Black Sabbath after the performance.

Following this album, Abrahams left (forming his own band, Blodwyn Pig). There were a number of reasons for his departure: he was a blues purist, while Anderson wanted to branch out into other forms of music; Abrahams and Cornick did not get along; and Abrahams was unwilling to travel internationally or play more than three nights a week, while the others wanted to be successful by playing as often as possible and building an international fan base.

1969 - 1971 DEVELOPING THEIR OWN STYLE

After auditions for a replacement guitarist, Anderson chose former Motivation, Penny Peeps and Gethsemane member Martin Barre, who impressed Anderson with his persistence more than anything else: he was so nervous at his first audition that he could hardly play at all, and then showed up for a second audition without a cord to connect his guitar to an amplifier. Nevertheless, Barre would become the second longest-standing member of the band after Anderson and Abrahams' permanent replacement on guitar.

This new line-up released Stand Up in 1969, the band's only UK number-one album. Written entirely by Anderson - with the exception of the jazzy rearrangement of J. S. Bach's Bourree it branched out further from the blues, clearly evidencing a new direction for the group, though not yet approaching the up-and-coming style of progressive rock being developed at the time by groups such as King Crimson, Genesis, The Nice and Yes. Stand Up feels, instrumentally, not entirely unlike a jazz-tinged early Led Zeppelin album, with a heavy and slightly dark sound. The "Living in the Past" single of the same year reached number three in the UK chart, and though most other progressive groups actively resisted issuing singles at the time, Tull had further success with their other singles, "Sweet Dream" (1969) and "The Witch's Promise" (1970), and a five-track EP, "Life Is a Long Song" (1971), all of which made the top twenty. In 1970, they added keyboardist John Evan (although technically he was only a guest musician at this stage) and released the album Benefit which has a continuity owing as much to studio technique as to compositional skill.

Bassist Cornick left following Benefit, replaced by Jeffrey Hammond, a childhood friend of Anderson whose name appeared in the songs "A Song for Jeffrey", "Jeffrey Goes to Leicester Square", "For Michael Collins, Jeffrey, and Me", and who also is the writer and narrator of "The Story of the Hare Who Lost His Spectacles" featured in the A Passion Play album. Jeffrey was often credited on Tull albums as "Jeffrey Hammond-Hammond", but the extra "Hammond" was an inside joke regarding the fact that Hammond's mother's maiden name was also "Hammond", no relation to his father.

This line-up released Tull's best-known work, Aqualung in 1971. On this album, Anderson's writing voiced strong opinions about religion and society. The title character of "Aqualung" is a homeless alcoholic ephebophile, and the focus of the song "Cross-eyed Mary" is an underage prostitute. "My God" is a full-frontal assault on ecclesiastic excesses: People what have you done/locked Him in His golden cage./Made Him bend to your religion/Him resurrected from the grave./He is the god of nothing/if that's all that you can see. In contrast, the gentle acoustic Wond'ring Aloud is a love song. Due to these controversial topics, Aqualung was both adored and reviled in equal amounts when it was released, and is still a dividing line among Jethro Tull fans. Nevertheless, the title track and the band's signature song "Locomotive Breath" (the latter based on Nat Adderley's "Work Song") remain staples of most classic rock stations.

1972 - 1976 PROGRESSIVE ROCK

Because of the heavy touring schedule and his wish to spend more time with his family, drummer Bunker left the band after the Aqualung album, and was replaced by Barriemore Barlow in early 1971. Barlow first recorded with the band for the EP "Life Is a Long Song" and made his first appearance on a Jethro Tull album with 1972's Thick as a Brick. This was perceived as a concept album (A Passion Play being a true one) consisting of a single track split over the two sides of the LP, with a number of movements melded together and some repeating themes. The first movement with its distinctive acoustic guitar riff received some airplay on rock stations at the time (and occasionally turns up in modern classic-rock programming as a "deep" or "rare" cut). Thick as a Brick was the first Jethro Tull album to reach number one on the (U.S.) Billboard Pop Albums chart (the following year's A Passion Play being the only other). This album's quintet Anderson, Barre, Evan, Hammond, and Barlow endured until the end of 1975.

1972 also saw the release of Living in the Past, a double-album compilation of singles, B-sides and outtakes (including the entirety of the "Life Is a Long Song" EP, which closes the album), with a single side recorded live in 1970 at New York's Carnegie Hall. Fans regard the album as arguably the band's best compilation. Inspired by jazz musician Dave Brubeck's "Take Five," the title track remains one of their more enduring singles, though Anderson reportedly wrote it in 5/4 time with the intent of preventing its ascent to the pop charts.

In 1973, the band attempted to record a double album in tax exile at Chateau d'Horouville studios (something the Rolling Stones and Elton John among others were doing at the time), but supposedly they were unhappy with the quality of the recording studio and abandoned the effort, subsequently mocking the studio as the "Chateau d'Isaster." (An 11-minute excerpt from these recordings was released on the 1988 20 Years of Jethro Tull boxed set, and the complete sessions were finally released on the 1993 compilation Nightcap, with the contemporarily overdubbed flute lines where the vocal parts were missing.) Instead they quickly recorded and released A Passion Play, another single-track concept album with very allegorical lyrics, focusing on the afterlife. A Passion Play sold well but received generally poor reviews, including a particularly damning review of its live performance by Chris Welch of Melody Maker.

Around this time, the band's popularity with critics began to wane, but their popularity with the public remained strong. 1974's War Child, an album originally intended to be a companion piece for a film, reached number two on the Billboard charts and received some critical acclaim, and produced the radio mainstay "Bungle in the Jungle". It also included a song, "Only Solitaire", allegedly aimed at L.A. Times rock music critic Robert Hilburn, who was one of Anderson's harsher critics.

In 1975 the band released Minstrel in the Gallery, an album which resembled Aqualung in that it contrasted softer, acoustic guitar-based pieces with lengthier, more bombastic works headlined by Barre's electric guitar. Written and recorded during Anderson's divorce from his first wife Jenny, the album is characterized by introspective, cynical, and sometimes bitter lyrics. Critics gave it mixed reviews, but the album came to be acknowledged as one of the band's best by longtime Tull fans, even as it generally fell under the radar to listeners familiar only with Aqualung. Following this album, bassist Hammond left the band, retiring from music altogether to pursue painting (which had always been his intention). John Glascock, who earlier was playing with flamenco-rock band Carmen, a support band on the previous Jethro Tull tour, was tabbed as the band's new bassist.

1976's Too Old to Rock 'n' Roll: Too Young to Die! was another concept album, this time about the life of an aging rocker. Anderson, stung by critical reviews (particularly of A Passion Play), responded with more sharply-barbed lyrics. The press seemed oblivious to the ploy, and instead asked if the title track was autobiographical a charge Anderson hotly denied. Curiously, the sleeve for the album featured a comic strip with a lead character (Ray Lomas) that looked very similar to Anderson.

1977 - 1979 FOLK ROCK TRILOGY

The band closed the decade with a trio of folk rock albums, Songs from the Wood, Heavy Horses, and Stormwatch. Songs from the Wood was the first Tull album to receive unanimously positive reviews since the release of Benefit and Living in the Past.

The band had long had ties to folk rockers Steeleye Span. Although not formally considered a part of the folk rock movement (which had actually begun nearly a decade earlier with the advent of Fairport Convention), there was clearly an exchange of musical ideas among Tull and the folk rockers. Also, by this time Anderson had moved to a farm in the countryside, and his new bucolic lifestyle is clearly reflected on these albums. A stellar example is the title track of Heavy Horses, a paean to draft horses.

The band continued to tour, and released a live double album in 1978. Entitled Bursting Out it featured dynamic live performances from the lineup that many Tull fans consider comprising the golden era of the band. It also features Anderson's often-ribald stage banter with the audience and band members. ("David's gone for a pee. Ah, he's back. Did you give it a good shake") The vinyl LP contains three tracks not found on the initial single-disc CD edition: Martin Barre's guitar solo tracks "Quatrain" and "Conundrum" (which had an extended drum solo from drummer Barriemore Barlow) and a version of the 1969 UK single hit, "Sweet Dream". (These tracks were restored in a re-mastered double-CD edition released in 2004.) During part of the tour, because of health problems, John Glascock was temporarily replaced by Anderson's friend Tony Williams.

During this time, David Palmer (now known as Dee Palmer), who had long been the band's orchestra arranger, formally joined the band on keyboards. Bassist Glascock died in 1979 following heart surgery and Stormwatch was completed without him (Anderson contributed bass on a few tracks). The following tour featured Dave Pegg of Fairport Convention on bass guitar. After this tour, Anderson decided to record his first solo album.

EVOLUTION OF LIVE SHOWS DURING THE 1970'S

During the early 1970s Tull went from a progressive blues band to one of the largest concert draws in the world. In concert, the band was known for theatricality and long medleys with brief instrumental interludes. While early Tull shows featured a manic Anderson with bushy hair and beard dressed in tattered overcoats and ragged clothes, as the band became bigger he moved towards varied costumes. This culminated with the War Child tour's oversized codpiece and colorful costume.

Other band-members joined in the dress-up and developed stage personae. Bassist Glenn Cornick always appeared in vest and headband; his successor Jeffrey Hammond eventually adopted a black and white diagonally striped suit (and similarly striped bass guitar, electric guitar, and string bass); both performed while moving forcefully around their stage areas. John Evan dressed in an all-white suit with a neck-scarf of scarlet with white polka-dots; described as a "sad clown" type, he joined in the theatrics by galumphing back and forth between Hammond Organ and grand piano (placed on opposite sides of the stage in the Thick as a Brick tour) or by such sight-gags as pulling out a flask and pretending to drink from it during a rest in the music. Barriemore Barlow's stage attire was a crimson tank-top and matching runner's shorts with rugby footgear, and his solos were marked by smoke-machines and enormous drumsticks. Martin Barre was the island of calm amongst the madmen, with Anderson (and sometimes Evan) crowding him and making faces during his solos.

The band's stage theatrics peaked during the Thick As A Brick tour, a performance distinguished by stage hands wearing the tan trench-coat/madras cap ensemble from the album art, extras in rabbit suits running across stage and an extended interlude during which Barre and Barlow entered a beach-tent onstage and swapped pants.

A Passion Play was planned to have a full-length film to go with the stage theatrics; of this effort, it seems that only a few excerpts have survived to be re-released on recent commemorative videos of the band, including the interlude "The Story of the Hare Who Lost His Spectacles."

A similar multi-media effort had been planned for Too Old To Rock and Roll... but was not completed. Thereafter, the emphasis on theatrics was reduced but never eliminated. Anderson often dressed as a country squire on tours in the late 1970s, with the rest of the band adopting the style during their folk phase. The A tour featured the same white jumpsuit uniforms worn by the band on the album cover. Certain routines from the 1970s have recently become esconced in concerts, such as having a song interrupted by a phone call for an audience member (which Anderson now takes on a cell) and the climactic conclusion of shows including bombastic instrumentals and the giant balloons which Anderson would carry over his head and toss into the crowd.

1980 - 1984 ELETRONIC ROCK

Tull's first album of the 1980's, A, was originally intended to be Ian Anderson's first solo album. Anderson retained Barre on electric guitar, and added Dave Pegg (Fairport Convention) on bass, Mark Craney on drums, and special guest keyboardist/violinist Eddie Jobson (ex-Roxy Music, UK). Highlighted by the prominent use of synthesisers, it contrasted sharply with the established "Tull sound." After pressure from Chrysalis Records, Anderson decided to release it as a Jethro Tull album. Entitled A (taken from the labels on the master tapes for his scrapped solo album, marked simply "A for Anderson"), it was released in mid-1980.

In keeping with the mood of innovation surrounding the album, Tull made an early foray into the emerging genre of music video with Slipstream, a film of their concert at London's Hammersmith Odeon in September, 1980 for exterior scenes whilst the concert footage was actually from an American performance in New York featuring the A lineup. The video was directed by David Mallet, who directed numerous episodes of the BBC TV series "Dr. Who" and also directed the pioneering "Ashes to Ashes" video for David Bowie. The electronic style of the album was even more pronounced in these live performances and was used to striking effect on some of the older songs, including "Locomotive Breath". The more familiar Tull sound was brought to the fore in an all acoustic version of "Skating Away on the Thin Ice of the New Day" featuring Pegg on mandolin. "Slipstream", long a rarity on VHS, was included as a bonus DVD with the 2004 remastered edition of the A album.

Jobson and Craney departed following the A tour and Tull entered a period of revolving drummers (Gerry Conway, Paul Burgess, and Doane Perry). 1981 marked the first year in their album career that the band did not release an album; however some recording sessions took place (Anderson, Barre, Pegg, and Conway, with Anderson playing the keyboards). Some of these tracks were released on a Nightcap compilation in 1993. In 1982 Peter-John Vettese joined on keyboards, and the band returned to a somewhat folkier sound albeit with synthesisers for 1982's Broadsword and the Beast. The ensuing concert tour for the album was well-attended and the shows featured what was to be one of the group's last indulgences in full dress theatricality: the stage was built to resemble a Viking longship and the band performed in traditional medieval regalia.

An Anderson solo album (which was in fact an Anderson-Vettese effort) appeared in 1983, in the form of the heavily electronic Walk into Light. Although the album featured electronic soundscapes and synthesizer voicings advanced for its time, as well as cerebral lyrics about the alienating effects of technology, the release failed to resonate with longtime fans or with new listeners. However, as with later solo efforts by Anderson and Barre, some of the Walk Into Light songs, such as "Fly By Night", "Made in England" and "Different Germany", later made their way into Tull live sets.

In 1984 Tull released Under Wraps, a heavily electronic album with no "live" drummer (instead, as on Walk into Light, a drum-machine was used). Although the band was reportedly proud of the sound, the album was not well-received, particularly in North America. However, the video for "Lap of Luxury" did manage to earn moderate rotation on the newly influential MTV music video channel. Also, the acoustic version of the title track, Under Wraps 2, found some favor over the years and a live instrumental version of the song was included on the "A Little Light Music" concert CD of 1992. Some longtime Tull fans regard Under Wraps as one of the band's weaker efforts; however, Martin Barre considers it his favorite. As a result of the throat problems Anderson developed singing the demanding Under Wraps material on tour, Tull took a three-year break, during which Anderson continued to oversee his salmon farm which he founded in 1978.

1987 - 1992 HARD ROCK

Tull returned strongly with 1987's Crest of a Knave. With Vettese absent (Anderson contributed the synth programming) and the band relying more heavily on Barre's electric guitar than they had since the early 1970s, the album was a critical and commercial success. Shades of their earlier electronic excursions were still present, however, as three of the album's songs again utilized a drum machine. The band won the 1989 Grammy Award for Best Hard Rock/Metal Performance, beating favorites Metallica. The award was particularly controversial as many did not consider Jethro Tull hard rock, much less heavy metal. Under advisement from their manager, no one from the band turned up to the award ceremony. In response to the criticism they received over the award, the band then took out an advert in a British music periodical with the line, "The flute is a heavy, metal instrument!". The style of Crest has been compared to that of Dire Straits, in part because Anderson seemed to no longer have the vocal range he once possessed. The album contains the popular live song "Budapest", which depicts a backstage scene with a shy local female stagehand.

1988 was notable for the release of 20 Years of Jethro Tull, a five-LP themed set (also released as an unthemed three-CD set, and as a truncated single CD version on 20 Years of Jethro Tull: Highlights) consisting largely of outtakes from throughout the band's history as well as a variety of live and remastered tracks. It also included a booklet outlining the band's history in detail. Now out of print, it has become a collector's item, although many (but not all) of the outtakes have been included as bonus tracks on the remasters of the band's studio albums.

In 1989, the band released Rock Island, which met with much less commercial and critical success than Crest of a Knave. The lead-off track, "Kissing Willie," featured bawdy double entendre lyrics and over the top heavy metal riffing that seemed to take a satiric view of the group's recent Grammy award win. The song's accompanying video found difficulty in receiving rotation because of its sexual imagery. Although Rock Island was something of a miss for the group, a couple of fan favorites did emerge from the album. "Big Riff and Mando" reflects life on the road for the relentlessly touring musicians, giving a wry account of the theft of Barre's prized mandolin by a stage-struck fan. "Another Christmas Song", an upbeat number celebrating the humanitarian spirit of the holiday season, stood out against the brooding and sombre mood of many of the songs on the album and was well-received at concerts. It was re-recorded for the 2003 "Jethro Tull Christmas Album" release.

1991's Catfish Rising was a more solid album than Rock Island. Despite being labelled as a "return to playing the blues," the album actually is marked by the generous use of mandolin and acoustic guitar and much less use of keyboards than any Tull album of the Eighties. Notable tracks included "Rocks on the Road", which highlighted gritty acoustic guitar work and hard-bitten lyrics about urban life and "Still Loving You Tonight", a bluesy low-key ballad.

1992's A Little Light Music was a mostly-acoustic live album which was well received by fans due to its different takes on many past compositions, as well as a rendition of the folk song "John Barleycorn." As documented by these live performances, Ian's voice had clearly improved since his throat injury in the mid-Eighties.

1995 - PRESENT WORLD MUSIC INFLUENCES

After the 1992 tour, Anderson re-learned how to play the flute and began writing songs that heavily featured world music influences. Dave Pegg also left the band at this time to concentrate on his work at Fairport Convention; his replacement was Jonathan Noyce. 1995's Roots to Branches and 1999's J-Tull Dot Com are less rock-based than Crest of a Knave or Catfish Rising. These most recent original Tull efforts reflect the musical influences of decades of performing all around the globe. In songs such as "Out of the Noise" and "Hot Mango Flush", Anderson paints vivid pictures of third-world street scenes. These albums have reflected Anderson's coming to grips with being an old rocker, with songs such as the pensive "Another Harry's Bar", "Wicked Windows" (a meditation on reading glasses), and the gruff "Wounded, Old, and Treacherous".

In 1995, Anderson released his second solo album, Divinities: Twelve Dances with God, an instrumental work comprised of twelve flute-heavy pieces pursuing varied themes with an underlying motif. The album was recorded with current Tull keyboard player Andrew Giddings.

2003 saw the release of The Jethro Tull Christmas Album, a collection of traditional Christmas songs together with old and new Christmas songs written by Jethro Tull.

As of April 2005, according to the official Tull website, Anderson says the band has no plans to record any new studio albums in the near future and that he would prefer to dedicate his time to touring with both Tull and his solo Rubbing Elbows band. He would also like to make more guest appearances with other musicians, live and in the studio. Furthermore, Anderson's voice seems to have regained some of its previous range.

An Ian Anderson live double album and DVD was released in 2005 called Ian Anderson Plays the Orchestral Jethro Tull. In addition, a DVD entitled Nothing Is Easy: Live at the Isle of Wight 1970 and a live album Aqualung Live (recorded in 2004) were released in 2005.

Ex-drummer Mark Craney, from the short-lived 1980-1981 line-up, died of diabetes and pneumonia on November 26, 2005. He had suffered through a history of health problems including kidney ailments, paralysis, and a heart condition; a number of Tull members (including Anderson) contributed to a recent charity album, Something With a Pulse, to help Craney pay medical bills and return to health.

LINEUPS

1968 - 1969

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, harmonica, acoustic guitar, piano
Mick Abrahams - guitar
Glenn Cornick - bass
Clive Bunker - drums

1969 - 1970

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, harmonica, acoustic guitar, keyboards, mandolin
Martin Barre - guitar. flute
Glenn Cornick - bass, vocals
Clive Bunker - drums, percussion

1970 - 1971

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Jeffrey Hammond - bass
Clive Bunker - drums
John Evan - keyboards

1971 - 1975

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar, soprano saxophone
Martin Barre - guitar
Jeffrey Hammond - bass
Barriemore Barlow - drums, percussion
John Evan - keyboards

1975 - 1976

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
John Glascock - bass
Barriemore Barlow - drums, percussion
John Evan - keyboards

1976 - 1979

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar, tin whistle
Martin Barre - guitar
John Glascock - bass
Barriemore Barlow - drums
John Evan - keyboards
David Palmer - keyboards

1979 - 1980

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Barriemore Barlow - drums
John Evan - keyboards
David Palmer - keyboards

1980 - 1981

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Mark Craney - drums
Eddie Jobson - keyboards, violin

1982 - 1984

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Gerry Conway - drums
Peter-John Vettese - keyboards

1984 - 1985

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Gerry Conway - drums
Doane Perry - drums
Peter-John Vettese - keyboards

1985 - 1987

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, electric guitar, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Gerry Conway - drums
Doane Perry - drums

1987 - 1988

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar, keyboards
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Doane Perry - drums

1988 - 1991

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar, harmonica, mandolin
Martin Barre - guitar, mandolin
Dave Pegg - bass, mandolin
Doane Perry - drums
Maartin Allcock - keyboards, acoustic guitar

1991 - 1992

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Doane Perry - drums
Dave Mattacks - drums
Maartin Allcock - keyboards
Andrew Giddings - keyboards

1992 - 1995

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar, harmonica
Martin Barre - guitar
Dave Pegg - bass
Doane Perry - drums
Andrew Giddings - keyboards

1995 - present

Ian Anderson - lead vocals, flute, acoustic guitar, mandolin, mandocello, harmonica, bamboo flute
Martin Barre - guitar
Jonathan Noyce - bass
Doane Perry - drums
Andrew Giddings - keyboards

ALBUMS

1968 - This Was
1969 - Stand Up
1970 - Benefit
1971 - Aqualung
1972 - Thick as a Brick
1972 - Living in the Past
1973 - A Passion Play
1974 - War Child
1975 - Minstrel in the Gallery
1976 - Too Old to Rock 'n' Roll: Too Young to Die!
1977 - Songs from the Wood
1978 - Heavy Horses
1978 - Bursting Out
1979 - Stormwatch
1980 - A
1982 - Broadsword and the Beast
1984 - Under Wraps
1985 - A Classic Case
1987 - Crest of a Knave
1989 - Rock Island
1991 - Catfish Rising
1992 - A Little Light Music
1993 - Nightcap
1995 - Roots to Branches
1999 - J-Tull Dot Com
2002 - Living with the Past
2003 - The Jethro Tull Christmas Album
2005 - Aqualung Live

COMPILATIONS

1976 - M.U. - The Best of Jethro Tull
1977 - Repeat - The Best of Jethro Tull - Vol II
1985 - Original Masters
1988 - 20 Years of Jethro Tull
1988 - 20 Years of Jethro Tull: Highlights
1993 - 25th Anniversary boxed set
1993 - The Best of Jethro Tull: The Anniversary Collection
1998 - Through the Years
2001 - The Very Best of Jethro Tull
2003 - Essential Jethro Tull

ADDITIONAL LIVE RECORD

1990 - Live at Hammersmith '84
1995 - In Concert
2004 - Nothing Is Easy: Live at the Isle of Wight 1970

Follow Muzikum